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Physics P: Heat Capacities Depend on Crystal Structures

Johann Marinsek
Year: 2008
Molar heat capacities of metals depend on crystal structure. According to the prevailing quantum theory metallic bonding is an interplay of the free valence electrons that constitute the so-called electron cloud and the ion cores of the lattice atoms. The electrons allegedly drift in a random manner through the lattice of ion cores. The bonding model explains metals as a lattice of ion cores held together by a gas of free electrons! The electron gas cannot hold together the ion cores that are repelling each other!

Here I propose an atomic model according to William Prout (1815): each chemical element is made out of hydrogen atoms. The so-called mass number A represent the number of the constituting hydrogen atoms. Bonding is due to magnetic coupling because each hydrogen atom is a magnet; hydrogen itself is composed of 4 elementary ring magnets that are charged +?+?.

Molecules are atoms conjoined in some way. Bonding in molecules is also due to magnetic coupling. Bonding agents are hydrogen atoms. There are 3 varieties of H-bonds: a single hydrogen, 2 hydrogen atoms in series or 2 hydrogen bonds parallel. Molar heat capacity depends on the crystal structure of the element or molecule and on hydrogen bonding. The known crystal structures and heat capacities indicate the existing hydrogen bonding.