Year: 2012 Pages: 7
Euclid and the ancient Greeks were among the first to define Natural Philosophy with its dependence on geometry. They defined the Law of Cause and Effect requiring local contact forces, plus they invented the Axiomatic method to confirm and present universal truth. Later Isaac Newton and others defined the Empirical method of pursuing natural philosophy to discover new axioms, but the method ignored the question of truth. The empirical approach led to concepts like mass, non-local action-at-a-distance forces, point-particle approximations, etc. which man\'s common sense knew were not true. The success of the empirical approach in mathematically describing nature led to the development of the existential philosophy under which the universe did not function according to logic and common sense. Under the reign of this philosophy quantum mechanics and relativity theory were developed. Some natural philosophers rebelled against existentialism and introduced the philosophy of structuralism in which meaning is derived from the internal structure of systems. Scientists in the fields of biology, chemistry, and physics did not want to participate in the structural reformation, because they liked their existential theories. So they introduced the Postmodern Philosophy in which each field or discipline in science has its own definition of truth and reality. The university became the multiversity with no universal standards for truth. Work on the universal electrodynamic force shows that the approach of structural philosophy was correct. According to the universal force the same structures are repeated over and over again on various size scales with a strong dependence on combinatorial Euclidean geometry.