Year: 2002 Pages: 10

A confusing feature in the theory of relativity is the use of time and distance as parameters in explaining the constancy of the velocity of light and the reduced frequencies of atomic clocks in fast motion and in high gravitational field. It is well known that a radio signal passing a mass center is delayed compared to a signal from same distance through free space. Instead of stating that the velocity of the signal were reduced the theory of relativity explains that time close to mass centers flows slower thus saving the basic assumption of the theory, the constancy of the velocity of light. Same is true for atomic oscillators and the characteristic absorption and emission frequencies of atoms, an atomic clock loosing time when in fast motion is not considered as running slower but as experienced slower flow of time.

A confusing feature in the theory of relativity is the use of time and distance as parameters in explaining the constancy of the velocity of light and the reduced frequencies of atomic clocks in fast motion and in high gravitational field. It is well known that a radio signal passing a mass center is delayed compared to a signal from same distance through free space. Instead of stating that the velocity of the signal were reduced the theory of relativity explains that time close to mass centers flows slower thus saving the basic assumption of the theory, the constancy of the velocity of light. Same is true for atomic oscillators and the characteristic absorption and emission frequencies of atoms, an atomic clock loosing time when in fast motion is not considered as running slower but as experienced slower flow of time.A key demand of a physical theory is its capability to create an understandable picture of the reality we observe. Instead of just introducing mathematical expressions for observations, a physical theory should explain the logic behind the phenomena observed. The old Ptolemy astronomy worked well for calendar and eclipses but failed in serving as a basis for a physical view of celestial motions. A key in Copernicus' findings was the realization of the observer's state in the system - instead of defining the observer's state as the origin at rest Copernicus identified the Sun as the origin of the planetary system with Earth orbiting and rotating like any other planet. Such a structure gave basis for a physical approach of motions in the system thus opening a new era for the understanding of celestial mechanics and the laws of nature.

The Dynamic Universe approach takes a further step in reorienting the observer. The observable three-dimensional space as whole is considered as a closed spherical structure with its dynamics determined by a zero energy balance between gravitation and motion in the structure. Such approach links local phenomena to the state and motion of whole space and gives physical explanations to several postulates like the velocity of light, the rest energy of matter and the Mach's principle. It also explains the dependence of the velocity of light on the gravitational environment and the dependence of the ticking frequencies of atomic clocks on the state of local motion and gravitation - not by distorting time and distance coordinates but in absolute time and distance.