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Correct Visualization of Forces Between Balanced Zero-Net-Charge Atomic Particles

Morton F. Spears
Year: 2004 Pages: 3
In standard introductory physics textbooks, one finds the following claim: The positively charged proton and the negatively charged electron in an atom such as hydrogen cancel each other for all outside generation of electrostatic forces. This claim is incorrect due to a non-reciprocal characteristic of atoms. This paper provides a brief explanation of this experimentally determined non-reciprocal effect using simple hydrogen atom examples for concrete illustration.