Equilibrium and pH
Year: 2010 Pages: 7
An analysis of the development of equilibrium chemistry, particularly as applied to acid-base relations, reveals numerous inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the quantification procedures. The dimensionality of the equilibrium constant is distorted by the consistent failure to include the aqueous concentration of 55.5 moles per liter in the denominator of the equations. Other inaccuracies result from the neglect of the change in non-ionized solute concentration by the ionized portion, the neglect of the volume displacement of the solvent by the solute in aqueous solutions, and the neglect to factor in the pre-existent aqueous contribution to the hydrogen ion concentration in pH determinations. Corrections to the equilibrium equation and to the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation are proposed on this basis, along with a shift from a ?molar' context to a ?molal' context for solute concentrations. A new quantification scheme is developed in which ?neutral' is found at zero rather than at seven.