- That we have a universal super-ordinate or sub-ordinate continuum whose attributes influence every particle of matter.
- That every distinct and separate particle is equally constituted (has the same basic characteristics).
Both interpretations are valid, but mutually exclusive. In order to qualify as physics, each must exhibit physical characteristics. Otherwise, we are dealing with metaphysics. The inability to distinguish this difference is the principle cause of the chaotic state in which physics finds itself.