Leyton's Hierarchies of Symmetry: Solution to the Major Asymmetry Problem of Thermodynamics
Keywords: Leyton??s Hierarchies of Symmetry, Asymmetry, Thermodynamics
The Problem: Thermodynamics has a temporal asymmetry problem, recognized for a century, because the Second Law excludes negative entropy processes and nature does not.
- Starting with some controlled available system energy, the second law provides that, in subsequent interactions, the entropy S of a system can only remain the same or increase. Or, S ?? 0, once the subsequent interactions start.
- The recognized major problem in thermodynamics arises from the present Second Law. As Price states:
- A century or so ago, Ludwig Boltzmann and other physicists attempted to explain the temporal asymmetry of the second law of thermodynamics. ??the hard-won lesson of that endeavor??a lesson still commonly misunderstood??was that the real puzzle of thermodynamics is not why entropy increases with time, but why it was ever so low in the first place.??
- This problem particularly arises in prevailing notions of the origin of the universe, whether ??big bang?? or ??steady whimper??. A great deal of organization and energy came from somewhere or somehow, in a relatively short time cosmologically, to initially generate enormous negative entropy shortly after the beginning.
- If the energy of our observable universe somehow came from ??outside?? it (thus saving energy conservation), then it represented ??loss?? of available energy (positive entropy) to that outside source, and ??negative entropy?? to our gaining universe.
- This suggests a possible clue to the solution: Look for a lower or ??outside?? broken symmetry generating a higher negative entropy (higher symmetry) across an interface between the outside source and our observable universe. We will find precisely this required characteristic in Leyton??s geometry and in his hierarchies of symmetry, as well as in the broken symmetry of particle physics.
- Our observable state universe is separated by a quantum threshold interface from its associated virtual state vacuum. The vacuum has extraordinary virtual energy density and continuously exchanges energy with the observable state. This exchange in fact generates all observable forces of nature, in the modern physics view.
- We are thus focused directly upon the disordered virtual energy of the vacuum, and some required process to coherently integrate virtual vacuum energy into observable energy, crossing the quantum threshold boundary??a negative entropy process.
- Price also states:
- ??the major task of an account of thermodynamic asymmetry is to explain why the universe as we find it is so far from thermodynamic equilibrium, and was even more so in the past.??
- A theoretical process for producing negative entropy will of course solve the problem, if a physical system continuously producing negative entropy by that process can also be exhibited experimentally. Leyton provides the process, and every charge in the universe is already just such a required physical system obeying it.
- We have given the exact mechanism by which the charge coherently integrates virtual photon energy absorbed from the vacuum, into observable photons, which are re-emitted in all directions as real EM energy without any observable EM energy input. The charge continuously consumes positive entropy of the virtual state vacuum, and produces negative entropy at the next higher level, the observable state.