This paper describes overlooked results seen when Galileo's views from a ship or land are coupled with uniqueness of start and stop times of a falling object. There, the same elapsed time of travel of a specific object would be seen by all observers. Observers moving relative to that unique environment DO see measurably-different path lengths and velocities along those various path lengths. Those same results are shown to hold for a light ray in rectilinear motion. This appears to confirm universal time, as defined herein. Contrary to assumptions by both Lorentz and Einstein, it's NOT the physical length over which light travels that changes with velocity; it is the path length and speed of light travel passing over the fixed physical lengths which contracts or dilates with relative velocity. This also applies on a ?micro' level for a single light ray where it's the period between light waves (or frequency) which remains constant and it's light speed and wave lengths which vary in the view of moving observers. This contradicts centuries of erroneous assumptions that light frequency and wavelength are related by constant light speed c. However, it is difficult to measure light properties for a single tiny light ray from a single light source, so some real-life adjustments are needed as discussed in a second paper.
This paper is aka "Important but Overlooked Implications of Galileo's Relative Motion Observations".