The Dynamic Universe: Zero-Energy Balance Restores Absolute Time and Space
Keywords: Dynamic Universe, Zero-Energy Balance, Absolute Time, Absolute Space
The Dynamic Universe is a holistic model of physical reality starting from whole space as a spherically closed zero-energy system of motion and gravitation. Instead of extrapolating the cosmological appearance of space from locally defined field equations, locally observed phenomena are derived from the conservation of the zeroenergy balance of motion and gravitation in whole space. The energy structure of space is described in terms of nested energy frames starting from hypothetical homogeneous space as the universal reference and proceeding down to local frames in space. Time is decoupled from space - the fourth dimension has a geometrical meaning as the radius of the sphere closing the three-dimensional space. Relativity in the Dynamic Universe is the measure of the locally available share of total energy - clocks in fast motion or in a strong gravitational field do not lose time because of slower flow of time but because more energy is bound into interactions in space. For local observations, the DU predictions are essentially identical to the corresponding predictions derived from the theory of relativity. At the extremes, at cosmological distances and in the vicinity of local singularities in space however, differences become remarkable - e.g. galactic space in the DU appears in Euclidean geometry, and the magnitudes of high redshift supernovae are explained without assumptions of dark energy or accelerating expansion. Black holes in DU space have stable orbits down to the critical radius. Instead of a sudden Big Bang, the energy buildup in Dynamic Universe is seen as a continuous process from infinity in the past to infinity in the future. The Dynamic Universe means a major step in the unification in physics and cosmology. Electromagnetic energy is linked to the rest energy of matter and the effects of motion and gravitation in local frames and in the relevant parent frames are inherently included in the expressions of energy states and characteristic emission frequencies of atomic objects.