Interaction Model of Long-range Forces
In the conventional view electric charge and gravitational mass are objective, intrinsic properties of macroscopic objects and fundamental particles. Forces and interactions are consequences of such particle properties. In the model presented the traditional view is reversed and particle interactions, expressed as coupling constants, are taken as the fundamental objective entities while charge and mass are re-defined as nonobjective parameters. Electromagnetic and gravitational forces are interpreted as components of a unified long range force. This results in a classical, vector-force model which yields Mach's Principle, the Principle of Equivalence and a predicted value for the density of the universe consistent with the modern requirement of a preponderance of dark matter.