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Electromagnetic Propulsion via a Vacuum-Interactance Push

Blair M. Cleveland
Year: 1998
Keywords: crossed-field antenna, electromagnetic momentum density, Graham and Lahoz experiment, Lorentz force, Poynting vector flux, electromagnetic propulsion, vacuum interactance

Cleveland's paper won first place in the Electric Spacecraft Journal competition for innovative concepts in electric propulsion. [Electric Spacecraft Journal Issue No. 24 , 1998]

The “Lorentz force” equation is missing a force term proportional to the rate of change of electromagnetic momentum density carried by the Poynting vector-flux E x B. An abruptly pulsed crossed-field device (non-radiating) is proposed to interact with the “vacuum-medium” thereby creating an action-reaction propulsive force (push) which can be utilized for transportation means.