Cleveland's paper won first place in the Electric Spacecraft Journal competition for innovative concepts in electric propulsion. [Electric Spacecraft Journal Issue No. 24 , 1998]
The “Lorentz force” equation is missing a force term proportional to the rate of change of electromagnetic momentum density carried by the Poynting vector-flux E x B. An abruptly pulsed crossed-field device (non-radiating) is proposed to interact with the “vacuum-medium” thereby creating an action-reaction propulsive force (push) which can be utilized for transportation means.