Year: 2009 Pages: 11

Beginning in the 1990s, new Classical Electromagnetic models of nuclei were developed. These are quite totally different from those in the theoretical Standard Model which uses quarks and gluons, etc. Electrons and protons were considered to be spinning charged fibers, and a neutron was considered to be a paired combination of an electron and a proton. With these new nucleon models, nuclei were crudely modeled as concentric shells of these particles placed in a 3D spatial configuration by a geometrical mapping theory called Combinatorial Geometry. This theory was able to correctly predict the "Magic Numbers" as combinations of shells filling and emptying as nucleons were added. An improved Semi-Empirical Binding Energy Formula was developed, which accurately predicts the binding energies of stable and radioactive isotopes, and also correctly predicts their spins. The Electromagnetic model was improved by making detailed spatial and directional force balances using a variational minimization technique, which predicts decay energies for various reactions.

In 2004, a new Electromagnetic model of all types of particles was developed based upon a three-level scheme of wrapping fractionally charged fibers. This new fiber model has yet to be used to redo the nucleus calculations. However, Electromagnetic models have the potential to describe nuclear reactions in terms of unstable vibrations whose equations are analogs to the Schr?dinger equation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss all of these models, and to predict where the research should go next.